Automobile Accidents Are Almost As Old As Automobiles Themselves

Road traffic injuries represent about 25% of worldwide injury-related deaths (the leading cause) with an estimated 1.2 million deaths (2004) each year.Automobile accidents are almost as old as automobiles themselves. Early examples include Mary Ward, who became one of the first document automobile fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland, and Henry Bliss, one of the United State’s first pedestrian automobile casualties in 1899 in New York.A car accident or car crash is an incident in which an automobile collides with anything that causes damage to the automobile, including other automobiles, telephone poles, buildings or trees, or in which the driver loses control of the vehicle and damages it in some other way, such as driving into a ditch or rolling over. Sometimes a car accident may also refer to an automobile striking a human or animal. Car crashes — also called road traffic accidents (RTAs), traffic collisions, auto accidents, road accidents, personal injury collisions, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), — kill an estimated 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number (WHO, 2004). In the UK the Department of Transport publish road deaths in each type of vehicle. These statistics are available as “Risk of injury measured by percentage of drivers injured in a two car injury accident.” These statistics show a ten to one ratio of in-vehicle accident deaths between the least safe and most safe models of car.The statistics show[citation needed] that for popular, lightly built cars, occupants have a 6-8% chance of death in a two-car accident. (e.g. BMW 3 series 6%, Subaru Impreza 8%, Honda Accord 6%). Traditional “safety cars” such as the Volvos halve that chance (Volvo 700 4% incidence of death, Volvo 900 3%).The Toyota Land Cruiser SUV has a 6% incidence of occupant death in actual crashes. However, in multiple-vehicle crashes SUVs are not much more lethal than passenger cars.Although, rollovers are much more common in older SUVs as compared to passenger cars because of their top weight. For this reason SUVs actually post a greater threat to rollover and cause a fatality rather than passenger cars. Newer SUVs such as the Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT8 have a lower center of gravity and enhanced stability control programs which lower the risk of rollover substantially.Overall the four best vehicles to be in are the Jaguar XJ series 1%, Mercedes-Benz S-Class / SEC 1%, Land Rover Defender 1% and Land Rover Discovery 1%.[citation needed]Motorcyclist deaths within England and Wales stand at 53% of the annual road death statistics. Scooters/mopeds up to 50cc only account for 3% of those deaths. 2% of the scooter deaths were 16-19 year olds who had not taken CBT (Compulsory Basic Training). (Statistics taken from 2004/2005 DSA annual road deaths percentages)Cars have many basic safety problems – for example, they have human drivers who make mistakes, wheels that lose traction when the braking or turning forces are too high. Some vehicles have a high center of gravity and therefore an increased tendency to roll over. When driven at high speeds, collisions can have serious or even fatal consequence.Early safety research focused on increasing the reliability of brakes and reducing the flammability of fuel systems. For example, modern engine compartments are open at the bottom so that fuel vapors, which are heavier than air, vent to the open air. Brakes are hydraulic and dual circuit so that failures are slow leaks, rather than abrupt cable breaks. Systematic research on crash safety started[citation needed] in 1958 at Ford Motor Company. Since then, most research has focused on absorbing external crash energy with crushable panels and reducing the motion of human bodies in the passenger compartment. This is reflected in most cars produced today.Airbags, a modern component of automobile safetySignificant reductions in death and injury have come from the addition of Safety belts and laws in many countries to require vehicle occupants to wear them. Airbags and specialised child restraint systems have improved on that. Structural changes such as side-impact protection bars in the doors and side panels of the car mitigate the effect of impacts to the side of the vehicle. Many cars now include radar or sonar detectors mounted to the rear of the car to warn the driver if he or she is about to reverse into an obstacle or a pedestrian. Some vehicle manufacturers are producing cars with devices that also measure the proximity to obstacles and other vehicles in front of the car and are using these to apply the brakes when a collision is inevitable. There have also been limited efforts to use heads up displays and thermal imaging technologies similar to those used in military aircraft to provide the driver with a better view of the road at night.There are standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests. There are also tests run by organizations such as IIHS and backed by the insurance industry.Despite technological advances, there is still significant loss of life from car accidents: About 40,000 people die every year in the United States, with similar figures in European nations. This figure increases annually in step with rising population and increasing travel if no measures are taken, but the rate per capita and per mile traveled decreases steadily. The death toll is expected to nearly double worldwide by 2020. A much higher number of accidents result in injury or permanent disability. The highest accident figures are reported in China and India. The European Union has a rigid program to cut the death toll in half by 2010, and member states have started implementing measures.Automated control has been seriously proposed and successfully prototyped. Shoulder-belted passengers could tolerate a 32 g emergency stop (reducing the safe inter-vehicle gap 64-fold) if high-speed roads incorporated a steel rail for emergency braking. Both safety modifications of the roadway are thought to be too expensive by most funding authorities, although these modifications could dramatically increase the number of vehicles able to safely use a high-speed highway. This makes clear the often-ignored fact road design and traffic control also play a part in car wrecks; unclear traffic signs, inadequate signal light placing, and poor planning (curved bridge approaches which become icy in winter, for example), also contribute.

Affiliate Marketing Keywords

Also referred to as performance marketing, affiliate marketing is a form of performance-based advertising in which a business pays its affiliates based on the actions of a visitor or customer brought to the business through the affiliate’s own marketing efforts. Brands and agencies offer affiliate opportunities to publishers while affiliates sign up to market for advertisers. Below are 20 definitions of relevant terms in the affiliate space.AdvertiserOften referred to as the Merchant, the advertiser is either the company that produces the products or services affiliates promote or the company that brand hired to advertiser for them. Advertisers pay affiliates or networks for delivering traffic that generates a sale or lead for their brand.AffiliateAn individual (or company) who promotes products or services for a merchant in exchange for commission based off the sales and leads acquired. Affiliates are also known as publishers.Affiliate ManagerThe person who manages an affiliate program for a merchant. They are responsible for recruiting publishers, policing affiliate activity and increasing overall sales for the advertiser. An affiliate manager acts as liaison between the affiliate and the merchant; they may work in-house for the advertiser or be an independent service provider (see below: OPM) contracted run their affiliate program.Affiliate NetworkA third-party company that provides affiliate program management services for multiple brands. Affiliate networks have their own pool of affiliates for which they provide the tracking technology to report clicks, sales and leads. They allow advertisers opportunities for more exposure assuming their network includes reputable publishers with quality traffic.Click-through-Rate (CTR)Clicking through refers to the act of someone clicking on an affiliate link and being taken to the merchant’s website. Click-through-rate is a percentage rate that measures the number of times an affiliate link has been clicked on divided the number of times the link has been viewed. That number is then multiplied by 100 to find the percentage rate.Conversion RateConversions are actions successfully completed by a visitor or customer based on the pre-defined point of sale established between advertiser and affiliate. The action could be a click, a credit card submission during a sale, or signing up for an email list. Conversion rates show the number of times your affiliate link has generated a predefined conversion compared to the number of times the link has been viewed displayed as a percentage. Similar to the CTR, conversion rates are calculated by diving the amount of sales a link has generated by the number of impressions the link received and multiplying the result by 100.CookiesA cookie is a small file that is added to a browser by a site or redirector domain, allowing the site to recognize the user when he or she returns. Specific to affiliate marketing, cookies are used as a tracking alternate to pixels. They assign an ID to a user that has clicked on an affiliate link to get to a merchant website for a predefined period. If that user completes a conversion, the affiliate is credited for the sale based off the cookie recognition, regardless of whether or not they completed the sale using the affiliate link on a repeat visit.Cost Per Action (CPA)Cost Per Action, or Cost Per Acquisition, refers to the amount of money paid to obtain a desired outcome such as a completed sale or signup.Cost Per Click (CPC)Cost Per Click refers to the amount of money paid to generate a click by a user on an affiliate link. This is calculate by the number of clicks generated divided by the total campaign cost.Cost Per Thousand (CPM)Cost Per Thousand refers to the amount of money it costs to display an advertisement per 1000 impressions.CreativeA type of graphical ad or text link provided to the affiliate for use in promoting the affiliate program.Earnings Per Click (EPC)Earnings Per Click is the average amount earned every time someone clicks on an affiliate link. To find EPC, divide the amount generated in commissions from an affiliate link and by the total number of clicks that link received. If a campaign generates $2000 through an affiliate link and that that link received 7,000 clicks, the EPC would be $.29.Insertion OrderInsertion orders outline campaign details in addition to the terms and conditions agreement that advertisers and affiliates sign prior to commencing their working relationship. IOs enforce affiliate compliance, specify payout amounts per conversion, define traffic sources allowed and dictate campaign duration.Outsourced Program Manager (OPM)Outsourced Program Managers are third-party account representatives who work independently of an advertiser to find affiliates and ensure campaign success. OPMs are also considered affiliate managers and provide the services an advertiser needs to be profitable through affiliate marketing without having to take on the expense in-house.PixelPixels are HTML codes programmed onto a confirmation page that report sales when a conversion has occurred. There are four main types of pixels: javascript, iframe, image, and postback (or server2server). Each of these pixels is designed to pass customer information back to an advertiser or network based on a successful conversion so that commissions can be paid out accordingly.Tracking LinkAdvertisers provide tracking links to each of their affiliates or networks that includes a unique code specifically assigned to that account. Using this link, advertisers and networks can track the number of conversions acquired by a specific affiliate, allowing them to gage performance.Unique ClickUnique clicks track the number of original (or unique) visitors have clicked on an affiliate link versus seeing the total number of clicks (raw clicks) that have occurred. If someone clicks on an affiliate link 3 times, only one click would be counted. Unique clicks have a cookie persistence of 24 hours so if the same user came back more than a day later and re-clicked the affiliate link, another unique click would track, making it a total of 2 unique clicks and 4 raw clicks for that user.White LabelWhite labeling refers to a merchant allowing an affiliate to sell products under their own brand with no mention of the actual merchant. The advertisements are designed uniquely for the affiliate pushing the offer and often make no mention of the outside merchant. This can improve the conversion rate by convincing consumers that the product or service is solely available from the publisher. Most advertisers merchants limit white labeling opportunities to their top-performing and most trusted affiliates.

Important Things You Should Know About a Living Will

A living will let your doctor know what to do in the event of a medical trauma where it is impossible for them to get an answer from you regarding medical produces and choices to be taken which can affect your chances of survival. Each state has their own specific guideline about a living will and its execution will be implemented according to the laws of each state. If you are interested to create a living will of your own, you need to talk about it to your doctor, your local health department and the hospital near you. Alternatively, you can get a lawyer to create a living will for you.  As there are no standardized rules between states, you need to apply for a different living will when you move to another state.You can fill out this form and remember to include any extra wishes you may have on that form. When you are done, sign it and get it witnessed as required by the state legal laws. Once the document is completed, make several copies, give it to your family members, one to your doctor and keep one copy for yourself. Make sure your lawyer has a copy as well.What is the Health Care Power of Attorney?A health care attorney is a person who is responsible to make medical decision on your behalf if you are unable to do it yourself, based on the decisions you have stated in the loving will. The person is often referred as the agent. The agent will be the one responsible to weight the pros and cons of every medical decision and whether a particular treatment should be carried and is relevant to the patient’s wishes in his living will.A living will is an important part of smart living and dying with integrity. The will would service as a guidance to help those around you choose the medical procedures that would help you should an event arise that you are unable to decide for yourself.  For instance, you may want to let your heirs know about your desires and choices support system. Perhaps you don’t want to be resuscitated when you go into a cardiac arrest due to some religious reasons. It can be a difficult decision for your family members but when a situation arise, doctors will tend to honor that living will and execute instructions according to the wishes of the affected party stated in his or her living will.We are all governed by different belief systems and priorities that make us unique and give meaning to our existing. Everyone has their own specific set of values and beliefs that takes precedence over everything else around you. A living will help you achieve this goal easily and the document will serve as proof that you have managed and lived according to your highest values and a loyalty to what is most important to you in times of emergency.The decision to create your own living will can be one of the most important decisions you will make in your lifetime, It will help your heirs decide on the best thing to do whenever you are afflicted with a medical condition and are unable to make a decision or yourself. The living will be the ultimate guide that would help doctors determine what should be done when all hopes of recovery has gone and there is a big chance of you becoming incapacitated all your life. Instead of becoming a further burden on your family, you can choose to die with dignity and honor and your living will let you achieve that goal.